Wednesday, November 21, 2018

Fundamentals of Natural Gas Processing

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The natural gas industry began in the early 1900s in the United States and is still evolving. This high-quality fuel and chemical feedstock plays an important role in the industrial world and is becoming an important export for other countries. Several high-quality books* provide guidance to those experienced in natural gas processing. This book introduces the natural gas industry to a reader entering the field. It also helps those providing a service to the industry in a narrow application to better understand how their products and services fit into the overall process.
To help the reader understand the need of each processing step, the book follows the gas stream from the wellhead to the market place. The book focuses primarily on the gas plant processes. Wherever possible, the advantages, limitations, and ranges of applicability of the processes are discussed so that their selection and integration into the overall gas plant can be fully understood and appreciated.
The book compiles information from other books, open literature, and meeting proceedings** to hopefully give an accurate picture of where the gas processing technology stands today, as well as indicate some relatively new technologies that could become important in the future. An invaluable contribution to the book is the insight provided to the authors by experts in certain applications.

Chapter 1: Overview of Natural Gas Industry
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Sources of Natural Gas
1.3 Natural Gas Compositions
1.4 Classification
1.5 Processing and Principal Products
1.6 Product Specifications
 1.7 Combustion Characteristics
Chapter 2 Overview of Gas Plant Processing
2.1 Roles of Gas Plants 
2.2 Plant Processes

2.3 Important Support Components
2.4 Contractual Agreements and Economics
Chapter 3 Field Operations and Inlet Receiving 
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Field Operations
3.3 Gas Hydrates
3.4 Inlet Receiving
3.5 Safety and Environmental Considerations
Chapter 4 Compression
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Fundamentals
4.3 Compressor Types
4.4 Capacity and Power Calculations
4.5 Comparison of Reciprocating and Centrifugal
4.6 Safety and Environmental Considerations
Chapter 5 Gas Treating 
5.1 Introduction.
5.2 Solvent Absorption Processes
5.3 Physical Absorption
5.4 Adsorption
5.5 Cryogenic Fractionation 
5.6 Membranes
5.7 Nonregenerable Hydrogen Sulfide Scavengers
5.8 Biological Processes
5.9 Safety and Environmental Considerations
Chapter 6 Gas Dehydration
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Water Content of Hydrocarbons
6.3 Gas Dehydration Processes
6.4 Safety and Environmental Considerations
Chapter 7 Hydrocarbon Recovery
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Process Components
7.3 Recovery Processes
7.4 Safety and Environmental Considerations 
Chapter 8 Nitrogen Rejection
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Nitrogen Rejection for Gas Upgrading
8.3 Nitrogen Rejection for Enhanced Oil Recovery
8.4 Safety and Environmental Considerations
Chapter 9 Trace-Component Recovery or Removal
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Helium
9.3 Mercury
9.4 (BTEX) Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene 
Chapter 10 Liquids Processing
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Condensate Processing 
10.3 NGL Processing
10.4 Safety and Environmental Considerations
Chapter 11 Sulfur Recovery
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Properties of Sulfur
11.3 Sulfur Recovery Processes 
11.4 Sulfur Storage
11.5 Safety and Environmental Considerations
Chapter 12 Transportation and Storage
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Gas
12.3 Liquids
Chapter 13 Liquefied Natural Gas 
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Gas Treating before Liquefaction
13.3 Liquefaction Cycles
13.4 Storage of LNG
13.5 Transportation
13.6 Regasification and Cold Utilization of LNG
13.7 Economics
13.8 Plant Efficiency
13.9 Safety and Environmental Considerations
Chapter 14 Capital Costs of Gas Processing Facilities
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Basic Premises for Cost Data 
14.3 Amine Treating
14.4 Glycol Dehydration 
14.5 NGL Recovery with Straight Refrigeration (Low Ethane Recovery)
14.6 NGL Recovery with Cryogenic Processing (High Ethane Recovery)
14.7 Sulfur Recovery and Tail Gas Cleanup
14.8 NGL Extraction Plant Costs for Larger Facilities
14.9 Corrections to Cost Data
Chapter 15 Natural Gas Processing Plants
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Plant with Sweet Gas Feed and 98% Ethane Recovery
15.3 Plant with Sour Gas Feed, NGL, and Sulfur Recovery
15.4 Plant with Sour Gas Feed, NGL Recovery, and Nitrogen Rejection
Chapter 16 Notation
Appendix A Glossary of Gas Process Terminology
Appendix B Physical Constants and Physical Properties
B.1 Unit Conversion Factors
B.2 Gas Constants and Standard Gas Conditions
B.3 Thermodynamic and Physical Property Data
B.4 Hydrocarbon Compressibility Factors

Author Details
  Arthur Kidnay, Ph.D., P. E., is professor emeritus, Chemical Engineering Department, Colorado School of Mines (CSM). He was a research engineer with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for 9 years before joining the faculty of CSM.
 William R Parrish, Ph.D., P.E., is a retired senior research associate. He spent 25 years in research and development at ConocoPhillips (formerly Phillips Petroleum Company) where he obtained physical properties data needed for new processes and for resolving operation problems. He provided company-wide technical expertise on matters involving physical properties and gas hydrates. He also participated on six gas plant optimization teams.

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