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Thursday, November 8, 2018

Thinking Skills - Critical Thinking Problam Solving

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This book is about thinking. But it is not about any thinking. It is about those kinds of thinking that take conscious effort, and which can be done well or badly. Most of our thinking takes little or no conscious effort. We just do it. You could almost say that we think without thinking! If I am asked whether I would like coffee or tea, I don’t have to exercise skill to reply appropriately. Similarly if
I am asked a factual question, and I know the answer, it takes no skill to give it. Expressing a preference or stating a fact are not in themselves thinking skills. There are language and communication skills involved, of course, and these are very considerable skills in their own right. But they are contributory skills to the activities which we are calling ‘thinking’.

 Unit 1: Thinking and reasoning
 1.1 Thinking as a skill
1.2 An introduction to critical thinking
1.3 Solutions not problems
Unit 2 Critical thinking: the basics

 2.1 Claims, assertions, statements
2.2 Judging claims
2.3 Argument
2.4 Identifying arguments
2.5 Analysing arguments
2.6 Complex arguments
2.7 Conclusions
2.8 Reasons
2.9 Assumptions
2.10 Flaws and fallacies
Unit 3 Problem solving: basic skills

3.1 What do we mean by a ‘problem’?
3.2 How do we solve problems?
3.3 Selecting and using information
3.4 Processing data
3.5 Finding methods of solution
3.6 Solving problems by searching
3.7 Recognising patterns
3.8 Hypotheses, reasons, explanations and inference
3.9 Spatial reasoning
3.10 Necessity and sufficiency
3.11 Choosing and using models
3.12 Making choices and decisions
Unit 4 Applied critical thinking

 4.1 Inference
4.2 Explanation
4.3 Evidence
4.4 Credibility
4.5 Two case studies
4.6 Critical thinking and science

4.7 Introducing longer arguments
4.8 Applying analysis skills
4.9 Critical evaluation
4.10 Responding with further argument
4.11 A self-assessment
Unit 5 Advanced problem solving
5.1 Combining skills – using imagination
5.2 Developing models
5.3 Carrying out investigations
5.4 Data analysis and inference
Unit 6 Problem solving: further techniques
6.1 Using other mathematical methods
6.2 Graphical methods of solution
6.3 Probability, tree diagrams and decision trees
6.4 Have you solved it?
Unit 7 Critical reasoning: Advanced Level
7.1 Conditions and conditionals
7.2 Soundness and validity: a taste of logic
7.3 Non-deductive reasoning
7.4 Reasoning with statistics
7.5 Decision making
7.6 Principles
7.7 An argument under the microscope
7.8 Critical writing
Answers to assignments

Author Details
"John Butterworth" and "Geoff Thwaites" 

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