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Thursday, December 13, 2018

Introduction To Thermodynamics With Applications (Free PDF)



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Thermodynamics is the science which has evolved from the original investigations in the 19th century into the nature of \heat." At the time, the leading theory of heat was that it was a type of fluid, which could flow from a hot body to a colder one when they were brought into contact. We now know that what was then called \heat" is not a fluid, but is actually a form of energy { it is the energy associated with the continual, random motion of the atoms which compose macroscopic matter, which we can't see directly.
This type of energy, which we will call thermal energy, can be converted (at least in part) to other forms which we can perceive directly (for example, kinetic, gravitational, or electrical energy), and which can be used to do useful things such as propel an automobile or a 747. The principles of thermodynamics govern the conversion of thermal energy to other, more useful forms. 
For example, an automobile engine can be though of as a device which first converts chemical energy stored in fuel and oxygen molecules into thermal energy by combustion, and then extracts part of that thermal energy to perform the work necessary to propel the car forward, overcoming friction. Thermodynamics is critical to all steps in this process (including determining the level of pollutants emitted), and a careful thermodynamic analysis is required for the design of fuel-e cient, low-polluting automobile engines. In general, thermodynamics plays a vital role in the design of any engine or power-generating plant, and therefore a good grounding in thermodynamics is required for much work in engineering.
If thermodynamics only governed the behavior of engines, it would probably be the most economically important of all sciences, but it is much more than that. Since the chemical and physical state of matter depends strongly on how much thermal energy it contains, thermodynamic principles play a central role in any description of the properties of matter. For example, thermodynamics allows us to understand why matter appears in di erent phases (solid, liquid, or gaseous), and under what conditions one phase will transform to another.


Content:-
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 2. ENERGY, WORK, AND HEAT
CHAPTER 3. EQUILIBRIUM
CHAPTER 4. THE SIMPLE COMPRESSIBLE SUBSTANCE
CHAPTER 5. THE FIRST LAW FOR OPEN SYSTEMS
CHAPTER 6. ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW
CHAPTER 7. ENTROPY ACCOUNTING AND APPLICATIONS
CHAPTER 9. POWER GENERATION AND PROPULSION
CHAPTER 10. CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM
CHAPTER 11. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW
CHAPTER 12. THERMODYNAMICS OF MAGNETIC SYSTEMS
APPENDIX A. STATISTICAL MECHANICS OF THE MONATOMIC IDEAL GAS
Index

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