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Monday, December 24, 2018

Refrigeration for Cryogenic Sensors and Electronic Systems (Free PDF)

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This document contains the proceedings of the second of two conferences held at the National Bureau of Standards Boulder Laboratories on the subject of closed-cycle cryo-coolers for small superconducting devices and electronic systems.

The first conference, whose proceedings are available from the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, as NBS Special Publication 508, entitled "Applications of Closed-Cycle Cryocoolers to Small Superconducting Devices"^ was a meeting of about 40 invited speakers and participants. Its purpose was to review the state-of-the-art of small cryocoolers for temperatures below. about 20 K, and to describe the needs of various prospective users of cryocoolers for superconducting and other cryogenic instruments used in biomagnetism, geophysics, magnetic anomaly detection, superconducting computers, Josephson voltage standards, space applications, millimeter-wave and infrared detection, and laboratory measurements. Also presented at this meeting were some new ideas for very- low-power low- interference cryocoolers, Stirling and Joule-Thomson types, particularly suited to many of the listed applications. A subject of special interest was a review of progress on high-T superconductors, since the cost, complexity,
and drive power of a cryocooler can be reduced considerably if the instrument can be operated at temperatures above 6 or 8 K rather than at 4 K or below. There are, of course, some applications where lower temperatures are required in any case.

In short, the purpose of the first conference was to define the problem. The present conference was organized quite differently. It was open to all interested participants, and most papers were contributed. Invited papers are those by Roubeau and by Nisenoff, the former being a rather free-ranging discussion of some unconventional approaches to cryogenic technology, and the latter a comprehensive review of recent developments in hight superconducting devices and materials. The contributed papers are on refrigeration concepts, systems and components suited to the support of cryogenic sensors and electronic systems below 20 K. Techniques and components developed for higher temperatures that are applicable to low-temperature refrigeration are included.

1. Introductory Remarks and Summary
2. "A Preview of Unconventional Suggested Cooling Processes and Some Practical Problems Related to Small Refrigerators,"
3. "Refrigeration Requirements for Superconducting Computers,"
4. "Development Approaches for Long-Life Cryo- Coolers,"
5. "Theoretical Analysis of A 3-Stage Stirling Cycle Cryocooler,"
6. "Some Thermodynamic Considerations of Helium Temperature Cryocoolers ,"
7. "Dynamic Analysis of a Small Free-Piston Resonant Cryorefrigerator,"
8. "Methods for the Measurement of Regenerator Ineffectiveness,"
9. "Serviceable Refrigerator System for Small Superconducting Devices,"
10. "Performance of A 1 Watt 4K Cryosystem Suitable for A Superconducting Computer,"
11. "Developments Toward Achievement of a 3-5 Year Lifetime Stirling Cycle Refrigerator for Space Applications,"
12. "Thor Cryocooler,"
13. "A Cryogenic System for the Small Infrared Telescope for Spacelab 2,"
14. "Requirements for and Status of a 4.2°K Adsorption Refrigerator Using Zeolites,"
15. "Cooling of SQUID Devices by Means of Liquid Transfer Techniques for Reduced
Helium Consumption and Enhanced Temperature Stability,"
16. "A Contamination Free Compressor for Small Scale Stirling Refrigerators,"
17. "A Bi-Directional Linear Motor/Generator with Integral Magnetic Bearings for Long Lifetime Stirling Cycle Refrigerators,"
18. "Destgn Considerations for Mixromintature Refrigerators Using Laminar Flow Heat Exchangers,"
19. "Progress in the Development of Microminiature Refrigerators Using Photolithographic Fabrication Techniques,"
20. "Low Temperature Regenerators,"
21. "Measurement of Thermal Properties of Cryocooler Materials,"
22. "Gas Heat Switches,"
23. "Operation of a Practical SQUID Gradiometer in a Low-Power Stirling Cryocooler,"
24. "Current Status of High Temperature Josephson Device Technology,"
25. Attendance List

Author Details
Edited by:
"J. E. Zimmerman" 

"D. B. Sullivan" 
"E. McCarthy"

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