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Friday, April 12, 2019

Centrifugal and Axial COMPRESSOR CONTROL


File Size: 4.17 Mb

Description
The cost of machinery damage and process downtime due to compressor surge and overspeed can be from thousands to millions of dollars for large continuous chemical or petrochemical plants. This text demonstrates how to select the proper control schemes and instrumentation for centrifugal and axial compressor throughput and surge control. More material is devoted to surge control because surge control is more difficult and the consequences of poor control are more severe.

Special feedback and open-loop backup control schemes and fast-acting instrumentation are needed to prevent surge due to the unusual nature of this phenomenon. In order to appreciate the special instrument requirements, the distinctive characteristics of centrifugal and axial compressors and the surge phenomenon are described. This text focuses on the recent advancements in the description of surge by E.M. Greitzer (Ref. 15). Simple electrical analogies are used to reinforce the explanation. Simulation program plots using the Greitzer model of surge are used to graphically illustrate the oscillations of pressure and flow that accompany different degrees of severity of surge. Extensive mathematical analysis is avoided. A few simple algebraic equations are presented to help quantify results, but the understanding of such equations is not essential to the selection of the proper control schemes and instrumentation.

Content:-
Figures
Tables
Section 1: INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDENT
Section 2: DESCRIPTION OF COMPRESSORS
Section 3: DESCRIPTION OF SURGE
Section 4: EFFECT OF OPERATING CONDITIONS
Section 5: THROUGHPUT CONTROL
Section 6: SURGE CONTROL
Section 7: INSTRUMENT REQUIREMENTS 
Section 8: DISTURBANCES
Section 9: THROUGHPUT AND SURGE CONTROL INTERACTION
Section 10: MULTIPLE COMPRESSOR CONTROL
Section 11: COMPUTER MONITORING
Section 12: STARTUP
Appendix A. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS
Appendix B. ACSL DYNAMIC SIMULATION PROGRAM FOR SURGE
Appendix C. APPLICATION EXAMPLE
REFERENCES


Author Details
"Gregory K. McMillan"




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