Thursday, May 16, 2019

Lecture Notes on Electrical Measurements & Instrumentation

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Measuring Instruments: Classification, Absolute and secondary instruments, indicating instruments,
control, balancing and damping, constructional details, characteristics, errors in measurement, Ammeters,
voltmeters: (DC/AC) PMMC, MI, Electrodynamometer type
Wattmeters: Electrodynamometer type, induction type, single phase and three phase wattmeter,
compensation, Energymeters: AC. Induction type siqgle phase and three phase energy meter,
compensation, creep, error, testing, Frequency Meters: Vibrating reed type, electrical resonance type

Instrument Transformers: Potential and current transformers, ratio and phase angle errors, phasor
diagram, methods of minimizing errors; testing and applications.
Galvanometers: General principle and performance equations of D' Arsonval Galvanometers, Vibration
Galvanometer and Ballistic Galvanometer.
Potentiometers: DC Potentiometer, Crompton potentiometer, construction, standardization, application.
AC Potentiometer, Drysdale polar potentiometer; standardization, application.

DC/AC Bridges :General equations for bridge balance, measurement of self inductance by Maxwell’s
bridge (with variable inductance & variable capacitance), Hay’s bridge, Owen’s bridge, measurement of
capacitance by Schearing bridge, errors, Wagner’s earthing device, Kelvin’s double bridge.
Transducer: Strain Gauges, Thermistors, Thermocouples, Linear Variable Differential Transformer
(LVDT), Capacitive Transducers, Peizo-Electric transducers, Optical Transducer, Torque meters,
inductive torque transducers, electric tachometers, photo-electric tachometers, Hall Effect Transducer

CRO: Block diagram, Sweep generation, vertical amplifiers, use of CRG in measurement of frequency,
phase, Amplitude and rise time of a pulse.
Digital Multi-meter: Block diagram, principle of operation, Accuracy of measurement, Electronic
Voltmeter: Transistor Voltmeter, Block diagram, principle of operation, various types of electronic
voltmeter, Digital Frequency meter: Block diagram, principle of operation

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