Thursday, May 16, 2019

Lecture Notes on Renewable Energy Sources

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Energy Scenario: Classification of Energy Sources, Energy resources (Conventional and nonconventional), Energy needs of India, and energy consumption patterns. Worldwide Potentials
of these sources. Energy efficiency and energy security. Energy and its environmental impacts, Distributed generation.

Solar Energy: Solar thermal Systems: Types of collectors, Collection systems, efficiency calculations, applications.

Photo voltaic (PV) technology: Present status, solar cells, cell technologies, characteristics of PV systems, equivalent circuit, array design , building integrated PV system, its components , sizing and economics. Peak power operation. Standalone and grid interactive systems.

Wind Energy: Wind speed and power relation, power extracted from wind, wind distribution and wind speed predictions. Wind power systems: system components, Types of Turbine, Turbine
rating. Choice of generators, turbine rating, electrical load matching, Variable speed operation, maximum power operation, control systems, system design features, stand alone and grid
connected operation. Small Hydro Systems

Energy storage and hybrid system configurations: Energy storage, Battery – types, equivalent circuit, performance characteristics, battery design, charging and charge regulators. Battery management. Flywheel-energy relations, components, benefits over battery. Fuel Cell energy storage systems. Ultra Capacitors. Bio-Mass and Bio-Fuels.

Grid Integration: Stand alone systems, Concept of Micro-Grid and its components, Hybrid systems – hybrid with diesel, with fuel cell, solar-wind, wind –hydro systems, mode controller, load
sharing, system sizing. Hybrid system economics, Interface requirements, Stable operation, Transient-safety, Operating limits of voltage, frequency, stability margin, energy storage, and load
scheduling. Effect on power quality, harmonic distortion, voltage transients and sags, voltage flickers, dynamic reactive power support. Systems stiffness.

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