Tuesday, June 18, 2019

Design Handbook: Engineering Guide to Spring Design

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This handbook is written for design engineers, as a practical guide to those responsible for designing springs. Springs are flexible members that store energy. Design considerations for members that experience large deflections are quite different from those used for rigid structures. A sufficient amount of detail has been included so that those designers without access to a computerized program can generate an optimum solution to a spring design problem.

Many designs do not perform well in service due to incomplete or unclear definition. The assumption is made throughout this handbook that the designer knows the functional requirements of a spring, its space limitations, the environment in which it operates, its service requirements and any special considerations. Functional requirements are usually expressed as a load at a test position and/or a spring rate. Space limitations are defined by describing the envelope in which a spring is expected to operate. Environment can be characterized by the operating temperature and a description of substances in contact with a spring. Service requirements are the expected life, frequency of loading, rate of loading and permissible relaxation. Special considerations might involve, for example, restrictions due to assembly, electrical conductivity or magnetic requirements. To make a cost-effective design, it is essential to have the design problem clearly defined.

This handbook follows the design sequence illustrated in Figure 1-1. Section 2, Selecting Spring Configuration, reviews the methodology for choosing the best type of spring configuration to perform and intended function. Frequently, the choice of configuration is obvious to experienced designers. The inexperienced, and occasionally the experienced designer (in critical situations), should first review Section 2 to be sure that the most cost-effective configuration has been selected. The second major design decision is choice of material. Section 3, Spring Materials, gives information required to select one or two candidate materials for the design. Section 4, Residual Stress, Fatigue and Reliability, gives background

information necessary to select a stress level that will yield a satisfactory balance between cost and reliability. Remaining sections discuss each type of spring configuration in detail. These sections enable a designer, having chosen the configuration and material, to select a stress level, design a spring and then specify the spring to a springmaker. In many cases, examples are included to demonstrate the design process. In most sections, recommendations are made on stress levels for both fatigue and static service.

1. How to Use the Handbook
2. Selecting Spring Configuration
3. Spring Materials
4. Residual Stress, Fatigue and Reliability
5. Helical Compression Springs
6. Helical Extension Springs
7. Garter Springs
8. Helical Torsion Springs
9. Retaining Rings
10. Belleville Spring Washers
11. Flat Springs
12. Special Spring Washers
13. Power Springs
14. Constant Force Springs
15. Spiral Springs
16. Volute Springs
17. Wire Forms
18. Index and Reference Information
19. The World of Associated Spring

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