Monday, July 29, 2019

Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems (Volume-II)

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This report is the second volume of a three-volume set of reports on energy consumption in commercial building HVAC systems in the U.S. The first volume, in process but not yet complete, focuses on energy use for generation of heating and cooling, i.e. in equipment such as boilers and furnaces for heating and chillers and packaged airconditioning units for cooling. This second volume focuses on parasitic energy use, the energy required to distribute heating and cooling within a building, reject to the environment the heat discharged by cooling systems, and move air for ventilation purposes. Parasitic energy use in commercial building HVAC systems accounts for about 1.5 quads of primary energy1 use annually, about 10% of commercial sector energy use. The third volume in the set will address opportunities for energy savings in commercial building HVAC systems.

The energy use estimates presented in this report have been developed using a rigorous bottom-up approach which has not previously been used to estimate national parasitic energy consumption. Distribution of the commercial building floorspace among building type, system type, and region was based largely on the 1995 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS95, Reference 3). Models for cooling and heating loads were obtained from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and were based on a set of over 400 prototype building models (Reference 19). Models of HVAC equipment design loads and operating characteristics were developed based on engineering calculations, product literature, discussions with equipment suppliers, and actual building site-measured data collected by Xenergy2 as part of the XenCAPTM demand-side management (DSM) program. The XenCAPTM data was also used for checking the building energy use models. Energy use estimates were developed for more than 1,500 technology/market segments representing the different building types, regions, system types, and equipment considered in the study.

1. Executive Summary
2. Introduction
3. Description of Systems and Equipment
4. Market Description
5. Baseline Energy Use Estimate
6. Conclusions and Recommendations
7. References
Appendix 1: XenCAP Energy Use Data
Appendix 2: Segmentation
Appendix 3: Equipment Modeling Methodology
Appendix 4: Background Segmentation Data
Appendix 5: Industry Expert Interview Summaries

Author Details
"Detlef Westphalen"
"Scott Koszalinski"

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