Friday, July 24, 2020

Oil and Gas Pipeline Design, Maintenance and Repair

Author Details 
Dr. Abdel-Alim Hashem
Professor of Petroleum Engineering
Mining, Petroleum & Metallurgical Eng.
Faculty of Engineering – Cairo University

Content :- 
* Load Considerations
* Stress Due To Internal Fluid Pressure
* Steady Pressure
* Un-steady Pressure (Water Hammer)
* Hydrostatic Pressure
* Stress Due To External Fluid Pressure
* Static Earth Load On Buried Pipe
  • Marston's Theory and Classification of Buried Conduits
  • Rigid Conduit in Ditch
  • Flexible Conduit in Ditch
  • Embankment Conduit
  • Tunnel Conduit
* Live Loads On Buried Pipe
* Other Loads On Pipelines
* Performance Analysis And Design
  • High Pressure Pipes
  • Effect of Temperature Change
  • Effects of Pipe Bending
  • Seismic Design of Pipelines
* Low- Pressure Pipes
  • Soil Classification
* Rigid-pipe Analysis And Design
  • Rigid Pipe Types and Bearing Strength
  • Standard Installations
  • Design Procedure
  • Flexible-Pipe Analysis and Design
Pipeline design includes several general steps:
  • Load determination,
  • Critical performance evaluation such as determining the stress and/or deformation of the pipe,
  • Comparison of performance with the limiting performance criteria established by codes and standards, and
  • Final selection of the pipe and construction method based on the design
  • Design of pipelines has evolved separately in different industries that use pipelines.
  • Different industries use pipelines for different purposes, design requirements and type of pipes are different
  • Petroleum industry and the natural gas industry primarily use steel pipe with welded joints
  • This allows the pipeline to withstand very high pressure, often above 1000 psig and sometimes above 3000 psig.
  • High pressures allow the use of long pipelines, often more than 1000 mile, with only a few booster pump or compressor stations for each pipeline.
* Pipeline design is based on three broad categories:
  • High-pressure pipes.
  • Low-pressure pipes, and
  • Intermediate-pressure pipes
* High-pressure pipes
  • Internal pressure is so high
  • It dominates the design.
  • Most long-distance petroleum and natural gas pipelines belong to this
* Low-pressure pipes
  • Internal pressure is so low, or nonexistent,
  • Design is governed by external loads.
  • Most sewer pipes and culverts belong to this category.
* Intermediate-pressure pipes,
  • Internal pressure load and the external loads are of similar magnitudes
  • Both must be considered.
  • This group includes pressure sewer pipes, water pipes, and certain petroleum and natural gas pipes.

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