Thursday, December 20, 2018

Lecture Notes on HVAC Design for Cleanroom Facilities

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Indoor air quality is of paramount importance for human comfort and health. Air, whether it is from outside or re-circulated within the area, acts as a vehicle for airborne contaminants brought in by the movement of people, material, etc. Since many of these airborne contaminants are harmful either to products or people working in such environments their removal is necessary on medical, legal, social or financial grounds.
Cleanrooms are specially constructed, environmentally controlled enclosed spaces where the concentration of airborne particles (contaminants) is kept within specified limits. In industry, cleanrooms are used in the manufacturing of electronic hardware such as integrated circuits (ICs) and hard drives. In biotechnology and medicine, cleanrooms are used when it is necessary to ensure an environment free of bacteria, viruses, or other pathogens.

Four fundamental rules apply to cleanrooms.

1) First, contaminants must not be introduced into the controlled environment from the outside.
2) Second, the apparatus or equipment within the controlled environment must not generate or otherwise give rise to contaminants (for example as a result of friction, chemical reactions, or biological processes).
3) Third, contaminants must not be allowed to accumulate in the controlled environment.
4) Fourth, existing contaminants must be eliminated to the greatest extent possible, and as rapidly as possible.

These requirements are defined in Federal industry standard 209 and ISO 14644-1. It takes an incredible amount of technology to achieve and maintain these objectives. The HVAC system for cleanrooms is a specialized field requiring thorough understanding of cleanliness guidelines, airflow streams, room pressurization, temperature, humidity and filtration requirements, knowledge of codes and standards, specialty equipment, instrumentation and control, and many more details. This course will describe some basic requirements of HVAC design for cleanroom applications.

Author Details
"A. Bhatia"

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