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Tuesday, April 2, 2019

Automatic Sprinkler System Calculations




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Description
Water is the most commonly used fire extinguishing agent, mainly due to the fact that it is widely available and inexpensive. It also has very desirable fire extinguishing characteristics such as a high specific heat and high latent heat of vaporization. A single gallon of water can absorb 9280 Btus (2586.5 kJ) of heat as it increases from a 70ÜF (21ÜC) room temperature to become steam at 212ÜF (100ÜC).

Water is not the perfect extinguishing agent, however, and is considered inappropriate for the protection of certain water reactive materials. In some cases, the use of water can produce heat, flammable or toxic gases, or explosions. The quantities of such products must be considered,
however, because application of sufficient water can overcome the reaction of minor amounts of these materials.

Another drawback of water is that it is more dense than most hydrocarbon fuels, and immiscible as well. Therefore, water will not provide an effective cover for burning hydrocarbons, or mix with them and dilute them to the point of not sustaining combustion. Instead, the hydrocarbons will float on top of the water, continuing to burn and possibly spread. To combat such fires, foam solutions can be introduced into the water to provide an effective cover and smother the fire. Applying water in a fine mist has also been successful.




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